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Term Main definition
Mutatis Mutandis
Latin language for 'by changing those things which need to be changed', in law texts meaning, more or less, the referred sections shall be applied on the same but is to be altered, when necessary, on points of detail.
Memorandum of Association
Or 'MOA' (in Thai Bor Or Jor 2 form) serves as the constitution of the limited company. It s prepared in the Thai limited company formation process and contains the company's name, its shareholders, its share capital, the registered office address,
Limited company
A private company, as a separate legal juristic entity recognized by law as the subject of rights and duties, whose shareholder are legally responsible for its debts only to the extent of the amount of their share capital.
Lèse majesté
French language term meaning in Thailand a crime (as treason), insult, offence against the dignity of the King, the Queen, the Heir-apparent or the Regent governed by the Thailand Criminal Law.
Meaning in general lawful or recognized by law or permitted by law, or relating to law, connected with the law but also it could mean appointed, established, or authorized by law (among others).
Synonyms - lawful
Last will
Meaning the last legal declaration by which a person, the testator, provides what should happen to his body and assets at death. It also could name one or more persons as executors to manage the execution of the estate. Last refers to the last written instructions of the maker of the will, i.e. before writing another will, subject to the legal requirement of making a valid declaration of a person's 'last will'.
Synonyms - testament
Land holding company
A limited company incorporated under Thai law that owns real estate property on behalf of foreigners. The company must have a majority Thai shareholding of Thai nominee shareholders and the foreigner will hold control and management in such company.
Synonyms - front company
Under Thai law property given by a man to his fiancée as evidence that the marriage shall take place. An engagement (betrothal) is not valid without such property given (section 1437).
Juristic person
A legal entity that is recognized by law as the subject of rights and duties other than a natural person (human being). In Thailand a juristic person can come into existence only by virtue of the civil and commercial code or other laws (section 65 civil and commercial code).
Immovable property
Means land and things fixed permanently to land or forming a body therewith, including real rights connected with the land or things fixed to or forming a body with land (section 39 civil code).
Synonyms - real estate
Referring to the real right under section 1402 civil and commercial code of Thailand giving a person the legal right to dwell in a house owned by another peron without paying rent.
As a legal term (in for example use and fruits as in usufruct) it refers to natural fruits such as natural production, offspring obtained from a thing and legal fruit such as interest (rent) obtained periodically by the owner from another person for the use of the thing.
A juristic entity registered under the provivions of the civil and commercial code. A non-profit charitable organization that will donate funds to public charity, religious, art, scientific, education or other purpose for the public benefit and not for sharing profits (section 110 Civil and Commercial Code).
The involuntary loss of money (as a penalty) without compensation as a result of a breach of contract.
Force majeure
Standard legal language (French) referring to an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond control of parties. The risks beyond the reasonable control of a party such as war and natural disasters (act of god) that could not be evaded through the exercise of due care and which is not a product or result of the negligence or malfeasance. In the Thailand Civil and Commercial Code it is described as 'any event the happening or pernicious result of which could not be prevented even though a person against whom it happened or threatened to happen were to take such appropriate care as might be expected from him in his situation and in such condition' (section 8).

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